Cheetah 3, le robot aveugle qui mote des escaliers jonchés d’obstacles

Le robot Cheetah 3 du MIT peut bondir et galoper sur un terrain accidenté, gravir un escalier jonché de débris et retrouver rapidement son équilibre lorsqu’il est tiré ou poussé, et tout cela en étant quasiment aveugle.

Ce robot quadrupède dont la taille est celle d’un Labrador adulte est intentionnellement conçue pour faire tout cela sans compter sur des caméras ou des capteurs environnementaux externes. Au lieu de cela, il « sent » son chemin à travers son environnement d’une manière que les ingénieurs décrivent comme une « locomotion aveugle », un peu comme se frayer un chemin à travers une pièce noire.

Il y a beaucoup de comportements inattendus que le robot devrait être capable de gérer sans trop se fier à la vision.

, explique le designer du robot, Sangbae Kim, professeur agrégé de génie mécanique au MIT.

La vision peut être bruyante, légèrement inexacte, et parfois non disponible, et si vous comptez trop sur la vision, votre robot doit être très précis dans la position et sera finalement lent. Nous voulons donc que le robot s’appuie davantage sur des informations tactiles. De cette façon, il peut gérer des obstacles inattendus tout en se déplaçant rapidement.

Les chercheurs présenteront les capacités sans vision du robot en octobre à Madrid lors de la Conférence internationale sur les robots intelligents. En plus de la locomotion aveugle, l’équipe présentera les améliorations matérielles du robot, y compris une gamme de mouvement élargie par rapport à son prédécesseur Cheetah 2.

Dans les prochaines années, Kim envisage le robot effectuant des tâches qui seraient trop dangereuses ou inaccessibles aux humains.

Le Cheetah 3 est conçu pour effectuer des tâches polyvalentes telles que l’inspection d’une centrale électrique, qui implique diverses conditions de terrain, y compris des escaliers, des bordures et des obstacles.

, explique Kim.

Je pense qu’il y a d’innombrables occasions où nous voudrions envoyer des robots pour faire des tâches simples au lieu des humains. Un travail dangereux, salissant et difficile peut être effectué de manière beaucoup plus sûre grâce à des robots télécommandés.

Le Cheetah 3 peut franchir aveuglément des escaliers et des terrains non-structurés, et retrouver rapidement son équilibre face à des forces inattendues, grâce à deux nouveaux algorithmes développés par l’équipe de Kim : un algorithme de détection de contact et un algorithme de contrôle prédictif.

L’algorithme de détection de contact aide le robot à déterminer le meilleur moment pour qu’une jambe donnée passe du balancement dans l’air au pas au sol. Par exemple, si le robot marche sur une brindille légère par rapport à un rocher dur et lourd, la façon dont il réagit et s’il continue à avancer d’un pas, ou recule et balance sa jambe à la place aura un impact sur son équilibre.

Quand il s’agit de passer de l’air au sol, le changement doit être très bien fait.

, dit Kim.

L’algorithme de détection de contact aide le robot à déterminer le meilleur moment pour passer d’une étape à l’autre, en calculant constamment pour chaque jambe trois probabilités : la probabilité qu’une jambe entre en contact avec le sol, la probabilité de la force générée par le sol, et la probabilité que la jambe sera à mi-aile. L’algorithme calcule ces probabilités à partir des données des gyroscopes, des accéléromètres et des positions articulaires des jambes, qui enregistrent l’angle et la hauteur de la jambe par rapport au sol.

Si, par exemple, le robot marche de manière inattendue sur un bloc de bois, son corps basculera soudainement, en changeant l’angle et la hauteur du robot. Ces données alimenteront immédiatement le calcul des trois probabilités pour chaque jambe, que l’algorithme combinera pour estimer si chaque jambe doit s’engager à pousser sur le sol, ou se relever et s’éloigner pour garder son équilibre – tout le temps que le robot est pratiquement aveugle.

Si les humains ferment les yeux et font un pas, nous avons un modèle mental pour savoir où se trouve le sol, et nous pouvons nous y préparer. Mais nous comptons aussi sur la sensation de toucher au sol.

, explique Kim.

Nous faisons en quelque sorte la même chose en combinant plusieurs sources d’information pour déterminer le temps de transition.

Les chercheurs ont testé l’algorithme dans des expériences avec le Cheetah 3 trottant sur un tapis roulant de laboratoire et grimpant sur un escalier. Les deux surfaces étaient jonchées d’objets aléatoires tels que des blocs de bois et des rouleaux de ruban adhésif.

Il ne connaît pas la hauteur de chaque marche et ne sait pas qu’il y a des obstacles dans les escaliers, mais il se faufile sans perdre son équilibre.

, explique Kim.

Sans cet algorithme, le robot était très instable et tombait facilement.

La locomotion aveugle du robot était également due en partie à l’algorithme de contrôle prédictif du modèle, qui prédit la force qu’une jambe donnée doit appliquer une fois qu’elle s’est engagée dans une étape.

L’algorithme de détection de contact vous dira : “c’est le moment d’appliquer des forces sur le terrain.”

, dit Kim.

Mais une fois que vous êtes sur le terrain, vous devez maintenant calculer quel genre de forces à appliquer afin que vous puissiez déplacer le corps de la bonne manière.

L’algorithme de contrôle modèle-prédictif calcule les positions multiplicatives du corps et des jambes du robot une demi-seconde dans le futur, si une force donnée est appliquée par une jambe donnée lorsqu’elle est en contact avec le sol.

Disons que quelqu’un donne un coup de pied au robot, quand le pied est déjà sur le sol, l’algorithme décide « Comment devrais-je spécifier les forces sur le pied ? Parce que j’ai une vitesse indésirable sur la gauche, donc je veux appliquer une force dans la direction opposée pour tuer cette vitesse. Si j’applique 100 newtons dans cette direction opposée, que se passera-t-il une demi-seconde plus tard ? »

L’algorithme est conçu pour faire ces calculs pour chaque jambe toutes les 50 millisecondes, ou 20 fois par seconde. Dans des expériences, les chercheurs ont présenté des forces inattendues en donnant des coups de pied et en poussant le robot qui trottinait sur un tapis roulant, et en le tirant par la laisse alors qu’il montait un escalier chargé d’obstacles. Ils ont constaté que l’algorithme prédictif du modèle permettait au robot de produire rapidement des contre-forces pour retrouver son équilibre et continuer à avancer, sans basculer trop loin dans la direction opposée.

C’est grâce à ce contrôle prédictif que l’on peut appliquer les bonnes forces au sol, combinées à cet algorithme de transition de contact qui rend chaque contact très rapide et sécurisé.

, explique Kim.

L’équipe avait déjà ajouté des caméras au robot pour lui donner une rétroaction visuelle de son environnement. Cela aidera à cartographier l’environnement général, et donnera au robot une tête visuelle sur les obstacles plus importants tels que les portes et les murs. Mais pour l’instant, l’équipe travaille à améliorer encore la locomotion aveugle du robot.

Nous voulons d’abord un très bon contrôleur sans vision.

, dit Kim.

Et quand nous ajoutons une vision, même si cela peut vous donner une mauvaise information, la jambe devrait être capable de gérer (les obstacles). Parce que si le robot marche sur quelque chose que la caméra ne peut pas voir ? Que va-t-il faire ? C’est là que la locomotion aveugle peut aider. Nous ne voulons pas trop faire confiance à notre vision.

Cette recherche a été soutenue, en partie, par Naver, Toyota Research Institute, Foxconn, et Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

 

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